Material Requirements Planning is (MRP). Material Requirements Planning, also known as Material Planning, is a ERP based inventory control and production planning system. MRP is both about production scheduling and inventory management. it is a material control system that ensures the required materials are always available. Material planning can be used for multiple items that have complex bills of material. Throughout this complicated process, In this blog we will try to break it down into simple forms so that users can understand the concepts of Material Planning.
Table of Contents
Introduction Material Requirements Planning
What is Material Requirements Planning in manufacturing
Material Planning is particularly well-suited for manufacturing environments where many components and subassemblies depend on external demand. End item demand is independent. However, the need for members used in the manufacture of end-products depends on their availability. When classifying inventory items, it is essential to distinguish between dependent and independent demands. & systems were designed to manage dependent demand items better.
An Material Planning system’s three main inputs are the master production schedule and the product structure records. The MRP system can’t function without these essential inputs. The master production schedule (MPS) records the demand for end-products over various periods. The master production schedule outlines how many of each item is desired and when they will be available.
The MPS is based on forecasts, firm customers, and internal orders. Material Planning converts the master schedule of end items into individual component requirements. Product structure records, also known as the bill of material records (BOM), are information about everything and assembly needed to make end products. Each item must have information such as a part number, description, and quantity per assembly. Inventory status records include information about all inventory items, including scheduled receipts and on-hand inventory. To maintain integrity, these records must be kept current, with every receipt, disbursement, or withdrawal documented. MRP will calculate the gross component requirements from the master production schedule and product structure records and reduce these requirements by the inventory status records.
Requirements Planning starts with planning the top-level products (i.e. the finished products), and then checking for any planned receipts such as purchase orders or production orders that can meet the needs. MRP will generate replenishment proposals to inform us if there isn’t enough stock or no planned receipt.
What is MRP in SAP
Material Requirements Planning was developed in the 1960s to ensure that companies had enough stock to produce goods and to avoid stock shortages. Although this concept wasn’t invented by SAP MRP is a core part of SAP ERP’s production planning.
SAP planning tool that will examine all material aspects is heavily based on the material master data. MRP considers current inventory, requirements, open buy req/orders, etc. its creates a plan order for items to be manufactured in-house if there is insufficient inventory. The master scheduler can convert this planned order to a production order. MRP will generate a purchase request which the Buyer will then transform into a purchase order. This is only one example, as the system can be configured to do almost anything you want based on master data and config.
Material Planning creates a replenishment proposal for a product that is being manufactured internally. MRP will calculate the dates for each order based on a predetermined lead time. This will ensure that production is started on time. MRP will determine components for each order based on a predetermined list, a bill or materials (BOM). Each component will have dependent requirements. This list will indicate the quantity and date.
Material Planning will use the dependent requirements to plan the components. MRP will plan the semifinished product levels one by one until it reaches the raw material level. The system will then generate purchase requisitions that inform us that we must buy the materials from a supplier.
This is the core process of a deterministic Material Planning Type. The main input will be the requirements for a finished product, and the output will include planned orders or purchase requests for the finished product at all levels.
When an issue cannot be resolved automatically, exception messages are triggered during the Requirements Planning run. If Material Planning decides that the order’s start date should be in the past, which would be impossible, it will trigger an exception message to notify the planner (known also as an MRP controller). A planner should review the Material Requirements results after the run and determine if there are any actions that should be taken to fix the problem. This cycle is repeated cyclically. When a new material requirement is made or a change is made in stock or in a planning element it is noted to be added in the next planning run. MRP is typically performed on a daily basis in most companies to plan all changed materials. Plus, it is done once per week to replan all materials regardless of any changes
In a situation where the product is make-to-stock the requests of customers are fulfilled by the inventory. Made-to-stock items are typically the consumer goods or products that have monopoly markets and are sold from the existing inventory. They are designed and manufactured over time until the product reaches an end point in its time
In a case of make-to-order where the customer’s requests are acknowledged and manufactured and finally delivered directly to the customer. An example of this situation could be high-end items like jewelry, top-of-the-line equipments or expensive products. The products are typically designed by the client and then produced according to the specifications of the customer or as per the design suggested by the buyer. The sales order is designed or designed according to customer’s requirements before being passed to the production team.
What are MRP’s Benefits?
- Assure the availability of components and materials for planned production and customer delivery.
- Keep inventory at the lowest level possible.
- Plan manufacturing activities
How MRP works
Requirements Planning involves accessing the database to read all planning elements and run complex algorithms. This can lead to lengthy execution times, depending on how many materials are planned.
Requirements Planning views are maintained mostly for production purposes. The information is provided by the responsible MRP controller or a different person from the production planning team. The only field that is mandatory that is required in MRP 1 View is Planning type.
Material Requirements Planning type
There are many types of MRP that are available. In this instance, our MRP controller decided that it was PD the default MRP for the majority of SAP installations.
Material Requirements Planning controller
Controller responsible for production of this material, manages all the data in these MRP views, along with the MRP results itself,production planning for this material etc. It is usual that the MRP controller provides the data for MRP views, or even in some organizational structures are maintaining these views on their own.
The first step in Material Planning execution is to review the planning. This file stores materials that have been subject to an MRP-relevant change. MRP then reads the requirements, including the forecast; performs replenishment, and determines when there will be a shortage of each material.
Material Planning uses a lot size procedure whenever a shortage is identified to determine the replenishment quantity required to address this shortage. Material Planning uses the shortage date and replenishment quantity to determine when procurement should begin in order to avoid shortages. MRP will also run the explosion bill to materials (BOM) if the replenishment request is for an in-house product. This generates requirements for all components and plans those components until they reach the lowest level.
How to run MRP in SAP
The Material Planning run procedure is listed below.
- Make demand or requirement in MD61
- Material Planning executed by MD02 for one material
- Specify the Material number & Plant
- Processing key ,NETCH(Net change for total horizon)
- Create Purchased requirement (2)
- Delivery schedule 2
- Create MRP list 1
- Planning mode 3
- Scheduling 2
- Find the result on the MD04. The list of requirements for stocks is MD04.
SAP Easy Access ->Logistics->Production->Material Requirements Planning->Planning->Single -item
There are many aspects to take into consideration when selecting the right material planning plan for your company. Martial planning assists in calculating the material requirements to meet internal manufacturing requirements or external procurement requirements and assist the demand planning function of an organization create forecasts for the future of demand as it works with material and manufacturing planning to prepare the company to meet the future demands.
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