Understanding SAP System Landscape Architecture

The SAP system landscape plays a crucial role in the efficient functioning of businesses, offering a structured approach to software development and deployment. This configuration typically comprises Development (DEV), Quality Assurance (QAS), Pre-Production (PRE-PROD), and Production (PROD) servers. Known as OTAP, this system aims to seamlessly implement software developed in ABAP across different stages without compromising system integrity.

SAP System Landscape

Introduction to SAP System Landscape

The SAP system landscape, a strategic arrangement of SAP servers, is pivotal for businesses seeking efficient software development and deployment. Typically comprising Development (DEV), Quality Assurance or Test (QAS), Pre-Production (PRE-PROD), and Production (PROD) servers, this OTAP system ensures a controlled implementation of software developed in ABAP. A three-system landscape structure, incorporating DEV, QAS, and PROD, is widely recommended for its effectiveness in balancing development needs with production stability.

What is an SAP System Landscape?

An SAP System Landscape is a collection of systems based on a single SAP product that have common aims but serves distinct functions. A typical setup is a three-tiered landscape with development, quality assurance, and production as the main roles. Production takes precedence because it serves many users at once and requires availability, functionality, and stability, whereas development handles changes, fixes, and projects, necessitating the use of quality assurance systems for working environments similar to production data as well as stable representations of future releases.

Logical Grouping of Systems:

SAP landscapes are logically organized based on the same product or release, with a similar three-tier structure: the development system, quality or test system, and production system. Production takes priority since it plays an important role in supporting a huge user base.

Client Roles in the SAP System Landscape:

Different systems have different clients, such as CUST for customizing, QTST for quality assurance, and PROD for production. It is common practice to modify settings in one client and then use the Change and Transport System (CTS) to transfer those changes to other clients.

Understanding the SAP System Landscape:

Production is given priority in the traditional three-tier landscape structure, which is comprised of development, quality assurance, and production. This is because production services a large user base. To mitigate potential dangers and provide a consistent testing environment throughout the development phase, which serves as the focal point for changes, repairs, and initiatives, it is necessary to have an intermediate quality assurance system.

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Development Server (Dev System):

Developers and functional consultants start here when they have a problem or want to make a change. Before submitting change requests, developers utilize the development test client (TEST) to ensure that their workbench and customization settings are working as expected. To run more realistic tests and fix bugs in the Customizing client, developers may use this tool to generate test application data. To guarantee that changes to cross-client data are instantly visible, the test is configured in the same SAP system as the customizing client. A unique client copy function is used to transfer changes to client-specific data from the customizing client to the test. This method makes use of unreleased change requests.

The Prototype or Sandbox client (SAND BOX)

is a tool used to test client-specific customizing settings, ensuring they do not conflict with real settings in the customizing client. To prevent conflicts, changes to cross-client customizing data and repository objects cannot be made in the prototype client. The CTS does not record or transport changes made to client-specific customization data, so it is essential to create appropriate client settings.

Quality Assurance (QAS) or Test Server:

In charge of thorough testing to ensure accuracy and avoid problems before progress is made. The SAP Quality Assurance System (SAP QAS) is an important part of the SAP system. It manages and handles the whole testing process of a SAP system, from planning and creation to testing and analysis. As part of its job, it checks the quality of the Development (DEV) system’s sets, changes, developments, and adds. When the work is done, the Quality Assurance System (QAS) is made new. Unit testing, integration testing, regression testing, and user acceptance testing are all parts of testing that make sure the changes are good and fix any mistakes or problems that come up.

  • Pre-Production Server (PRE-PROD):

Reduces the dangers of making direct modifications to production systems by serving as a middle ground between the two environments, development and production. To guarantee operational production system reliability, the PRE-PROD server acts as a production client with comparable data. This allows SAP consultants to test using data that is similar to production.

  • A training client (training system)

This system is used to prepare end users for new functions that will be transported to the production client. This client uses specially created application data and prevents changes to customizing data and repository objects.

Production Server (PROD):

The priority system is expected to be dependable and easily navigable for multiple users to utilize productively. After undergoing integrations, adaptations, and sifting, the golden client (or production server), one of the most significant SAP landscape customers, retains actual data documents for business organizations. There are 700 clients in pre-production and 800 clients in production.

What is a System refresh?

To minimize progressive drift and ensure that current data is included for testing purposes, a system refresh involves synchronizing data, storing information, and customizing the system. In comparison to the system that is being updated, it is a clone that is given precedence. In a broad sense, the method comprises renaming the system and restoring user accounts and interfaces to the configuration they had been in before to the refresh. It is up to the system to decide whether or not to perform a system refresh procedure.

SAP System Landscape Benefits:

  • Investment Protection: Integrating traditional SAP landscapes on infrastructure ready for SAP HANA.
  • Agility: automated provisioning capabilities for SAP applications, reducing time-to-value.
  • Engineering: integration of system capabilities with specified prerequisites and dependencies.
  • Optimization: Efficient design and deployment principles for seamless SAP landscape experiences.


The SAP system landscape is very helpful for businesses that want to make their operations more efficient because it has a clear framework and suggests best practices. Firms may be able to get ahead in the market with the help of SAP S/4HANA’s strong structure and simple real-time data analysis. It would be smart for businesses that are just starting to go digital to get to know these sites. When set up in a way that makes processes run more smoothly, the SAP system setting can be very helpful for businesses. With the help of SAP S/4HANA design and effective system update methods, business processes can be made more efficient, flexible, and safe for investments.

In conclusion, the SAP system landscape is a great tool for businesses that want to be more productive and efficient. A lot of extra clients, such as development test (TEST), prototype (SAND), and training (TRNG) clients, can make things run faster, be more flexible, and be easier to handle.

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