Definition of R/3 Architecture
R3 Means Real-time .R/3 software facilitates and connects all transactions of an organisation with real-time integration.E,g any change or upgrade in one application requires the data in the other applications concerned to be automatically modified or updated.
SAP R/3 Architecture
SAP R/3 Architecture facilitates all business transactions of an organisation and connects them together using real-time integration. Real-time integration ensures that any change or upgrade in one application causes the data to be modified or updated automatically in the other applications involved.
We know that SAP R/3 Architecture, particularly the client-server software. This ensures that the groups / layers that make up the R/3 system are built to operate concurrently through a variety of different computer systems.When a company instals SAP software, each part (or “layer” in the case of R/3) is stored, controlled and processed via the hardware of separate and specialised computer systems.
Each layer is capable of calling on all of the other layers built to complete the job.Such components/layers that request services are called “clients,” such components/layers that deliver services are called “servers.” This is the term-“client/server.
The three Conceptual Layers of this R/3 Architecture are … the classic configuration of the R/3 Framework includes the following layers of software:
The Presentation Layer
Receives input from the user and generates a method request. Presentation Layer is an interface for the user and a variety of different graphical user interfaces ( GUIs) can be used. SAPGUI is SAP’s own user interface programme (over 20 languages).
Usually, the presentation or GUI layer collects keyboard / mouse data from the user and sends the data to the application layer in the form of process requests for further processing. When the layer receives output from the application layer, it reformats the data and displays text and graphical data on the user’s PC screen.
The Application Layer
Uses the Software Logic Application to receive and process a request for a process.
The application layer consists of the core components of R/3. The bulk of R/3 business logic processing takes place in the application server layer. This is where the dispatcher controls the job procedures.
Application servers provide the complete logic of R/3 applications for business processes. The number of different application servers may be linked to a network, spread geographically.
The Database Layer
stores and recovers all data.Database Layer handles both the application elements of the R/3 Framework and the working data of the enterprise. Applications are downloaded from the database as needed, loaded into the application layer, and run from there.
The database layer includes an engine whose sole function is to store and retrieve data on behalf of the application layer. SAP R/3 uses the industry-standard database access language SQL (pronounced “SEE”-“QUEL”-Structured Query Language) as an interface for accessing its supporting database
Why R/3 Architecture
R/3 Architecture primarily aims at providing a range of tightly coupled, large-scale business applications. For any R/3 method, the normal set of applications is as follows:
SAP R/3 Competitive Factors outline below
SAP R/3 Architecture Work Processes
SAP R/3 Processes are used to handle operating system resources demands for the software application efficiently. The method is very closely associated with the software application.The memory and access to system resources are available for any operation. The kind of work that is carried out in the application server decides the on request
SAP’s proprietary control agent, the SAP DISPATCHER, is in the middle of the R/3 Basis kernel. The dispatching device handles the services used by the R/3 applications along with the respective operating system to control its process operations. The exact number of processes depends on the configuration and varies. The dispatcher’s primary function is to process the work processes pending applications.
Special work processes are available for:
- Dialogue Online work process -Interactive SAPGUI screen processing request
- Update work process -Updating of the database
- Background Work process -for Background processing such as Batch jobs
- Spool work process-Spooling/Printing process
- Enqueue work process-lock management
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